From Kot Khan Pakistan to India 1947

R P Bhatla
R P Bhatla

R P Bhatla is an AMIE (India) Engineer in Civil Engineering. He retired in 1994 as Deputy General Manager from Engineers India Ltd. He continued to work as General Manager, Triune Projects Ltd., General Manager Enron India, General Manager, PLL/Simon Carves India Ltd, and Advisor L&amp\;T Faridabad.

Editor's notes:

This is the second of several stories related to the life of the Bhatla family before and after the Partition of India in 1947. The first story is available here.

From Meghiana to Hoshiarpur, 1947 by Pran Bhatla is an independent story of another family in a similar situation.

India and Pakistan got their Independence in August 1947. My parents and their four children - three sons and one daughter - were living in a village called Kot Khan in District Jhang in west Punjab. We were Hindus, and this area became a part of Muslim-dominated Pakistan.

Kot Khan village is located about 1.5 km from the left bank of river Jhelum, and about 20 km from Meghiana, which is the headquarters of Jhang district. It was a perfect setting for good living on account of clean air, good quality drinking water, and summer time date fruits to enjoy. The village had a population of around 500, of which about half were Hindus.

I was studying in Standard 6 in a Middle school at Kot Shakir on the right bank of river Jhelum, and living in the school's hostel. This area was peaceful until close to the time of Independence. After our summer vacation ended in July 1947, we received a message that schools will remain closed for some more time. We were told not to return to the school until further notice.

With Independence Day approaching fast, the peace scenario was changing too and there were all sorts of rumours. Peace in cities seemed more fragile, and there were reports of curfew imposed in Jhang and Meghiana. On August 13, 1947, a messenger arrived at Kot Khan with the news that Kot Khan would be looted and vandalized next day on Thursday August 14. There was no one to help us - we would have to take care of our lives. Our peace had been suddenly disturbed.

On hearing the news of the impending loot, there was panic among the Hindus. About 25 Bhatla families got together at Shahn di Haveli, a large house with a surrounding compound. They had their bags and baggage with them, and they were ready to fight back in defence with whatever resources they had. The only weapon we had was a 12-barrel gun, owned by Mr Basant Lal Bhatla, for which we had 26 bullets. In those days, few people had weapons, and this weapon was perhaps good enough for peacetime security.

The families spent the night together on rooftops with brickbats, some sticks, and kerosene kept ready for heating and use as defence against intruders. But the elder and wiser lot was thinking hard how to save lives, even if everything else had to be sacrificed.

In the early morning of August 14, our uncle Bahadur Chand Katyal, who lived in the nearby village Sajhowal, arrived with his family. He was an influential person who had friendly relations with the village's numberdar (senior officer) Hakim Khan and his brothers, Fateh Khan and Inayat Khan. Hakim Khan was well known for his wisdom and moderation in dealing with people. The three Khan brothers owned more than 1,000 acres of land. Two other Khan brothers, Haji Khan and Ahmedyar Khan, also owned large amounts of land on the east side of the river. The Hindu families generally had small land holdings, and were mostly engaged in small business, apart from farming.

The Hindu and Muslim elders were closeted for two hours that early morning. Finally, a compromise emerged. The Hindu-owned 12-barrel gun was given to the Khans, who took the responsibility of assuring the safety of all Hindus. All Hindus were marched to the safety of the Khan compound at around 9:00 in the morning.  Adult male Hindus members were taken to the local mosque for safety, where they briefly and symbolically converted to Islam. Fateh Khan was positioned on the top of their house with the gun to ward off any miscreants.

At about 10 am, Kot Khan village was attacked by a slogan-shouting mob of about 1,000 Muslims.  Soon, all the shops and Hindu homes of the village were thoroughly looted. Even doors, windows and water hand pumps were removed, making the entire Hindu neighbourhoods unfit for living.

I could see from the roof top that crowds moving around with lathis (heavy sticks) and shouting for loot. Occasionally, someone from the crowd would Salaam (pay respect) to the Khan brother sitting on the rooftop with a gun. There was no loss of life or harm done to any of the village Hindus, as they were all sheltered by the Khan brothers in their compound.

By 6:00 pm, the mob had left with its loot, leaving the village in ruins. By 7:00 pm, all Bhatla families were quietly marched to the compound of Haji Khan, whose family was more compassionate towards Hindus. That night, Zulfikar Ali Khan, son of Ahmedyar Khan, escorted my father and uncle to our house to recover the gold ornaments they had buried earlier.

We remained in hiding in this Khan compound for 8 to 9 days. There were all sorts of stories circulating about what was happening in the nearby villages. The Hindus of this village will never forget the Khan families who kept them safe for so many days.

On August 24, Shadi Lal Katyal of village Chella, who had joined the Punjab Police as an Assistant Sub-Inspector, arrived with military trucks and some police force members. He told the Muslim numberdar of the evacuation plans for Hindus. The entire Hindu community was to be transferred to the Shah Jeewana Mandi Refugee camp. He had already arranged evacuation of his family and other Hindus of Chella village.

The Kot Khan Hindus reached the safety of refugee camp on August 25, 1947. The Shah Jeewana Mandi compound was full of refugees from the neighbouring areas. Many of them had been injured. Our stay of four days at the camp was very stressful, with danger of attack at nighttime. Nevertheless, some shops were still functional in the Mandi compound, where we could buy shoes, socks and other items of personal care.

On August 29, 1947, we boarded a train from Shah Jeewana and landed at Chiniot railway station, where we spent the night. We took another train to Lahore the next day. The train arrived at Chiniot on the morning of August 30. All our families boarded the train. The next stop was Chak Jhumra, where the entire train was jam packed by Hindu and Sikh families, with men, women, children and their luggage overflowing to the train's rooftop. The train was so packed that it was difficult to move. All the travellers were scared of their lives.

At around 4:00 pm, the train reached Shahdara, one stop short of Lahore. The train was detained at Shahdara for 8 to 9 hours, with no water to drink. Nobody was allowed to get down from the train and take water from the running water tap at the railway station. I remember having seen dead bodies by the pools of water on the opposite side of station. My older brother, at some risk to his life, went to this pool of water to soak some cloth, and ran back to the train. We used this water to quench our thirst.

By midnight, we were at Lahore where plenty of water of was available. The passengers seemed to be relieved of the impending danger to their lives.

Early morning on August 31, 1947, we reached Attari station on the Indian side of the border. By 9:00 am, we saw that some planes were dropping some food packets. The boiled gram they dropped was distributed to the hungry refugees from Pakistan. At noontime, we were taken to the home of a Sikh family, where we were served dal, roti and achaar (pickle). I still remember eating this, after two days hunger and fear.

We were no longer afraid or hungry. Would we able to rebuild our lives in this new place?


© R P Bhatla 2012


My Father's family was from Jhang and moved to India in August 1947. We never quite talked much about the events of that time, though I wish I had collected more anecdotes from my Father and Grandfather. It was enriching to know a little more through your article.

After reading this whole story, I could remember the similar story told by my father Sh. Devi Ditta Malhotra, who retired from Department of Posts as Assistant Post Master from Rohtak. He expired in November, 2011. His birth was also in village Kot Khan spoken as khan the kot also. My grand father name is Sh. Chaman Lal. My father told me almost same story, but he was about 8 years old at the time of partition. Our Malhotra family was also saved by khan brothers. May be with Bathla group. He used to mention that bathla families were also in Kot Khan.

As mentioned by Dr Suresh Malhotra, my elder brother I add further that our grand father Mr Chaman Lal and his younger brother Mr Wazir Chand were well known in village Kot Khan.My grand father was having a famous jewellery shop in village market. People from surrounding villages also use to come at their shop. My father were three brothers. Elder one was Mr Mastan Chand may be in age group of Bathla Sir. Second were my father and third was infant at that time. My grand father was having lot of moveable property in form gold and silver which he could not take with him in India. In place of immoveable property he was allotted a house in village kahanaur in Rohtak distt. As Bathla sir has told that he was studying in Kot Shakir at that time. my maternal grand father Mr Tota Ram Chopra was also a well known person in Kot Shakir. he was having a big haveli there. He was also dealing in jewellary business and was one of the rich persons of Kot Shakir. After two years of partition he went to Kot Shakir to take Gold Jewellary which he buried in the haveli, but he was not allowed to take it back. His haveli was converted into a primary school. He was allotted lot of land in Rohtak city. Later on my maternal uncles shifted to Samalkha in Panipat and started foundries there. If Bathla sir are able to recall some memories about my grand fathers please comment.

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Dear Sir, I hope you will be fine with good health. I am Hassan Ahmad belong to Awan family from Kot Khan District Jhang, Punjab (Pakistan). I am Chemical Engineer by profession from the Village of Kot Khan. Sir I have read your story "A prosperous and Peaceful Village life - Pre-partition". I know Khan family very well for whom you mentioned in your story. Just let me introduce briefly about my family, my Great grandfather were three brothers 1) Jan Muhammad 2) Noor Muhammad 3) Ghulam Muhammad My Great grandfather was Jan Muhammad, who lived with his younger brother Ghulam Muhammad in Jhang Meghiana and regularly visit Kot Khan, while the Baba Noor Muhammad thoroughly stayed in Kot Khan. My Grandfather name was Talib Hussain well known by his nick name "Mian". So mostly people called him Mian Talib Hussain. Ahmadyar Khan was good friend of my Grandfather (Dada Abbu) My Grandfather Mian Talib Hussain was also Hakeem (Desi Doctor) of the village Kot Khan. Khan Family have lot of respect for my Grandfather. Hakim Khan was also good friend of my Dada Abbu. There are three son of my Grandfather; 1) Yar Muhammad 2) Dost Muhammad 3) and my father Abid Hussain I talked last day with my father (Abid Hussain) regarding your whole stories. He knows your father and other family members very well. He is very keen to know about you and other Members. My father was in class 5 and my uncle Dost Muhammad was in class 6 during partition of 1947. Kot Khan school was lower middle school at that time. My father told me that most probably sir you or your brother was his class fellow. Sir kindly mention your full name as well as your other brothers he will pick quickly. He told me in response to your story that Elahi Bukhash was Headmaster of the school at that time and his son as you mentioned in your story was also teacher. His son name was Ghulam Abbas or probably Maqbool. He told me further that Mr. Elahi Bukhash was originally from Shor Kot. My father told me last day that I was very impressed by his school teacher with name Chaman Lal who was also from Bhatla family. Mr. Chaman Lal was very intelligent teacher. He was exceptionally good in Mathematics and very practical person. My father also know your uncle Wazir Chand and Bishan Dass. He told me I think there are four Muslim students in his Class and remaining were Hindu. He remember two's name, Mr. Kanawl the son of Mr. Bahdur Sappra (may be his cost Sappra) who was may be Kar Dar of Hakim Khan and the one Mr. Essa Sing from Lang (Called Langi) abuot 1.5 km away from Kot Khan towards South. My father is quite sure that among you brothers one of was his class fellow. My father have lot of memories with you people. My father also know very well Basant Lal Bhatla and told me that he was very rich person of Kot Khan at that time. He told me that he was Trader and in those days his business spread from Bombay to Kolkata. He also know his son who's name was Chunni Lal. He further added that there is also another guy who's name was Chunni Lal but this one belonged to Sunnara family (Goldsmith). He may be visited several years ago Kot Khan and take with him Dates (Khajooran/Pind) and leaves of "Shah Bahadur di Kaggi" on his Grandfather request. My father also know Ram Ji Sappra who has some land in Sajhowal. There is also another Mr. Bahadur Sappara who is the owner of one Pansar Shop (Dasi Medicine). His shop was near to big tree called in our local language "Peppal". This Peppal has very big root and still exist. This tree is almost in the center of the Kot Khan. My father is 82 now and have good memories. I am here to discuss and provide details of Kot Khan as much as possible. Regards, Hassan Ahmad

His son name was most probably Ghulam Abbas or Maqbool. He told me further that Mr. Elahi Bukhash was originally from Shor Kot. My father told me last day that he was very impressed by his school teacher with name Chaman Lal. He was also from Bhatla family. Mr Chaman Lal was very good in Mathematics and very practical . My father also know your uncle Wazir Chand and Bishan Dass. He told me I think there are four Muslim students in his Class and remaining were Hindu. He remember two's name, Mr. Kanawl the son of Mr. Bahdur Sappra (may be his cost Sappra) who was probably Kar Dar of Hakim Khan and the one Mr. Essa Sing from Lang (Called Langi) abuot 1.5 km away from Kot Khan towards South. My father have lot of memories with you people. My father also knows Basant Lal Bhatla and told me that he was very rich person. He was actually Trader and his business spread in Mumbai and Kolkata even those days. His son name was Chunni Lal. There is also another guy with name Chunni Lal but he was from Sunnara family (Goldsmith). He probably visited several years ago Kot Khan and collected Dtaes (Khajooran) and leaves of "Shah Bahadur di Khajji" on demand of his Grandfather. My father also know Ram Ji Sappra who have some land in nearby village Sahjowal but stayed in Kot Khan. There is also another Sappra Hindu whose name was Bahadur was the owner of Pansar Shop (Desi Medicine). This was almost in the center of the village near to big tree called "Peppal" in local language. This Peppal has big stem and I have never seen such big stem of tree so far in my life, most interestingly this tree still exist. I am here to discuss more if you are interested sir. Regards, Hassan

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Dear Mr. Bhatla, Hope you are doing well! I came across your blog in order to find some traces of my ancestral lineage, and also to know a bit more about their day in a life or strggules. Sadly, my efforts to find it out are becoming more dire , now that my grand father is in serious health condition and is put up on ventilator. I wish,I had spent more time talking to him earlier about his struggles as kid, and to get to know him better. I remember him mentioning to me maghiana and Kot Shakir , not sure which one of it was the exact place he used to live. I have fond memories of spending some of my childhood with my great grand father Shri Shanker dass. My grand father s name is Atam Prakash and we migrated to India punjab ( village Apra ). Writing this with hope to connect some dots to get to know a bit more about my family history. Regards, Rishi Sapra

My Grandfather Mr Dass Ram Bhatla also came from same village.He was teacher by profession.At the time of partition he was posted at Meghiana district.I think my dadi and Father Mr Khushabi Ram Bhatla come to india alongwith his family three sisters and two brothers.In india intially we reside Village Bahu Akbarpur (Badi Bahu) District Rohtak

My Father Ramesh Chand Malhotra was born in chiniot and moved to India after partition. My Grandfather was Nihal Chand Malhotra. Unfortunately I was only 6 when my dad passed away so know nothing about his childhood. This is a long shot, but if someone knew them it would be great to be in touch.

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